Pneumonia

Pneumonia is defined as ” acute inflammation of pulmonary parenchyma (parts of lungs involved in gas transfer).”

{ “slotId”: “8680692498”, “unitType”: “normal”, “pubId”: “pub-6657891265343894” }

Classification Of Pneumonia :

Community acquired pneumonia is in community :

Health Care :

  • Nursing Home
  • Dialysis Center
  • Chemotherapy

Hospital :- Hospital acquired pneumonia is acquired in hospital.

If 48-72 hours Pneumonia patient is admission in hospital then it’s acquired in hospital Post operative pneumonia Aspiration Pneumonia Bronco-pneumonia ( inflammation of lungs, arising in the bronchi

{ “slotId”: “”, “unitType”: “responsive”, “pubId”: “pub-6657891265343894”, “resize”: “auto” }

Clinical Features :

Symptoms :

  • Fever
  • Malaise (physical disorders)
  • Anorexia (eating disorders)
  • Headache

Signs :

  • Fever
  • Tachypnoea ( rapid breathing)
  • Cyanosis
  • Hypotension ( Blood Pressure Low )
  • Confusion

Causes :

1. Bacterial :

  • Streptococcus Pneumonia

2. Viruses :

  • Influenza
  • Para Influenza
  • Measles

Risk Factors :

  • Smoking
  • Alcoholism
  • Asthma
  • Liver Disease
{ “slotId”: “8680692498”, “unitType”: “normal”, “pubId”: “pub-6657891265343894” }

Investigation :

1. Chest X-ray :

  • Consolidation
  • Pleural Effusion ( Water on the lungs)
  • Lobar or multi Lobar infiltration

2. Blood Test :

  • Full blood count : Urea, electrolyte, Creatine
  • Liver Function Tests
  • C-reactive protein
  • Blood culture and sensitivity

3. Sputum :

  • For Microscopy

Figure Shows Main Symptoms Of Infectious Pneumonia :

Symptoms of pneumonia

Figure : X- Ray Finding :

X- ray finding of pneumonia
x ray finding of pneumonia

Figure credit : Wikipedia

Management [ Investigation + Treatment ] :

Host Your Website Here :
  • Oxygen Inhalation to maintain PaO2 > 8kpa
  • Antibiotic required currently recommended in uncomplicated and sever community acquired pneumonia.

Uncomplicated :

  • Amoxicillin 500mg X 8hours X orally

Instead of penicillin :

  • Clarithromycin 500mg X 12 hours X orally
    OR
  • Erythromycin 500mg X 6 hours X orally

If Staphylococcus is culture or suspected :

  • Flucloxacillin 1-2gm 6-hourly iv. Plus
  • Clarithromycin 500mg 6 hourly orally

If  Mycoplasma is suspected :

  • Clarithromycin 500 mg 12 hourly orally or iv. Plus
  • Rifampicin 600 mg 12 hourly iv in sever cases
{ “slotId”: “”, “unitType”: “responsive”, “pubId”: “pub-6657891265343894”, “resize”: “auto” }

Sever community acquired pneumonia :

  • Clarithromycin 500 mg X 12 hourly iv
    OR
  • Erythromycin 500 mg X 6 hourly iv plus
  • Co-amoxiclav 1.2gm X 8 hourly iv plus
    OR
  • Cefuroxime 1.5gm X 8 hourly iv
    OR
  • Amoxicillin 1gm 6- hourly plus
  • Flucloxacillin 2gm 6 hourly iv
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae : Inj. Benzyl penicillin 1-2gm 6 hourly

Complications Of Pneumonia :

  • Para Pneumonia Effusion
  • Empyema
  • Lobar collapse due to retention of sputum
  • Pneumothorax
  • Lung abscess
  • Renal Failure Respiratory Failure

Find Sumit Dhakal On Social Networking Sites
Facebook
Twitter
Instagram
Google+

Facebook Comments

Leave a Comment